Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Doll’s House Essay

Victorian England was marked by rapid industrial growth, resulted in changes in the society, organization and attitude of the people. It is the custom of a society to bring into play, its own rules and values, to satisfy their interests. The literary works of the Victorian Era were pictures of the contemporary society drawn by eminent writers of the time. Henrik Ibsen was one among them. The adverse aspects of the society were unraveled harshly by the author, in the play ‘Doll’s House’. Women were expected to surrender their life for the comfort of the family. This is well explicated in the play through the life of Nora, the principal female character. A thrash about maintaining their own self can be identified in the characters both male and female. The society of the era seemed to have coherent notions and concepts about masculinity and femininity. Deviation from such preconceived notions was not well accepted. Nora, the ‘doll wife’ of Torvald was confined in the comforts of her own home. She was denied the status of a wife. This was the fate of most of the woman characters of the period that appeared in the current literatures of the time. They had to struggle for the approval of the society they live in. What Ibsen wanted was to liberate woman from the conventional roles of bearer’s of children and their moral guides. The materialistic mentality of male characters of the time was revealed through Torvald,  Ã‚   an unsuccessful barrister who refused to take ‘unsavory cases’. This materialism was exhibited by his attitude towards his wife, that he considered her as an ‘asset’, not as his ‘partner’. The economic and social changes during nineteenth century made the people work for a place in the society based on money. The over powering morality is another major theme of the play. The heroic action of Nora to save her husband by forgery was a crime in the eyes of the society. Mrs. Linde betrayed her real lover and married another man only for money. All the characters of the play appear to be misleading and unreliable during their walks of life. This instability was true temperament of the period. Ibsen succeeded in gradually bringing out the real personality of the major characters of the play. Thus through a middle class family story, the author depicted the existing society and common life with power and precision. Reference Ibsen, Henrik. (1879). A Doll’s House. Capenhagen: Denmark.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Home of the Underdogs: A Great Educational Website Essay

In a website called Home of the Underdogs (http://www. the-underdogs. info/genre. php? name=Education&subgen=Language), there is an education genre where Language is one of the subgenres apart from Advanced Education, Arts or Literature, Early Childhood, General Knowledge, Math or Logic, Music, Problem Solving, Science, Social Studies, Typing or Writing, and Various Subjects (Home of the Underdogs, 2004). The Language section has great stuffs to use, such as Alf’s World of Words, Letter-Go-Round, Lingua Match, Mind Castle: Spell of the Word Wizard, and Reader Rabbit among others. There are exactly 18 Language games to choose from. If we add the other games in the other subgenres under the genre ‘Education’, then we would come to approximately 250 games all in all, and that is very helpful when teaching kids that are at least 3 years of age. The contents of this could be used when preparing a lesson plan like, for example, when preparing games or activities that can be drawn on the blackboard during discussion. We can apply Reader Rabbit, for example, by drawing a picture at the center and then spelling out three easy-to-read words (only 3 letters) beside the picture. There would be a clue above the picture on which letter it starts from, and by that the initial sound of that one letter can be read out loud. It would be good to read the three words that are beside the picture as well, so as to train them on the skill of reading. This is the same with Reader Rabbit’s game called ‘picture labeler’. There are three others that can be used as well: word sorter, word train, and memory game (Home of the Underdogs, 2004). Reader Rabbit is great for kids who are from 3-7 years of age, since it teaches them the skill of reading and spelling words. The word train, on the other hand, can be used by drawing a picture and a train that carries with it a couple of words that are almost the same. There are just so many in that website that can be used for preparing specific lessons for the kids.

The current Economic Situation in SA, India and Germany

Since the successful hosting of the roll cup football 2010 AS has sustained GAFF at Just under 20%. IN has been spending a large portion of its GAP on GAFF and this increased even more in 2004 to 2007 when they saw an increase from approximately 25% to 33%. GE has seen a gradual decline in GAFF however we expect to see this continue at the same rate as Germany continues to invest in renewable energy technology and infrastructure. Extrapolating IN and AS GAFF to 2020 we expect to see much the same ratio and a moving average extrapolation through to 2020 has been used for both countries.Economic theory states that gross savings, made up from the surplus between income and expenditure of households, business and government, is used to finance GAFF. The assumption is that these savings are stored in financial institutions and these institutions lend the savings to entrepreneurs and businesses in order for them to invest in capital. We can see from Fig. A. 9 in Appendix A that the correla tion between the proportion spent by the 3 countries on GAFF is proportional to the countries gross savings.AS savings as a percentage of GAP is extremely low in comparison to both GE and IN. Although AS can lend money in order to fund GAFF which it does this is not an ideal situation. It is essential for a country to consistently spend on GAFF as it is the capital which grows and sustains any economy. The culture in AS is not to save and in order to consistently fund capital it is essential for the AS public to start to save. 12 Fig. A. II in Appendix A indicates human development index (HID) for AS, IN and GE for the period 1995 to 2020.The HID is a measurement of life expectancy, educational attainment and income. The value expressed by HID is a value between O and 1 . The human development index is a measure of equality within a country and a value of 1 would mean perfect equality ND O would mean perfect inequality. As expected GE the developed country has the highest HID rating with an average of over 0. 9 since 2005. AS comes in second place with an average of 6. 19% from 2005 to 2014. AS has one of the world's most progressive constitutions and is based on the belief that AS belongs to all who live in it.AS is not without its equality challenges and unemployment, declining education system (WEFT global competitiveness report rates AS education as 46th out of 148 countries), high crime rates (rape in AS is the highest in the world), and widening gap twine rich and poor. IN score worst on the HID as a result of a large population many of whom live in abject poverty. It is however nice to see that things in IN are changing and they have come a long way since 1995 when they scored only 0. 4 HID and in 2014 they scored 0. 56 Just less than AS.Extrapolating GE HID to 2020 we SE no reason for any change and expect to see consistent value Just above 0. 9 for the whole period 2014 to 2020. Extrapolating AS HID to 2020 we expect the effects of a less competitive education system coupled with increasing unemployment, growing crime ate and widening of the gap between rich and poor to stagnate any improvements and predict a possible decrease in the HID for AS over the period 2014 to 2020. Inequality in IN is still a problem and we predict moderate improvement in HID but until there is a fundamental change especially in inequality between gender IN is unlikely to exceed 0. On the HID scale before 2020. 13 3. Conclusion 14 4. References 15 Appendix A 1 1. Introduction This assignment presents a range of economic variables from 1995 to present day and then extrapolates these variables to 2020. The economic variables are presented n three countries: South Africa (AS) India (IN) Germany (GE). The assignment explains trends and reasons for changes including the interrelationships between the economic variables, the countries presented, global economic forces and other socio-political economic factors within the specific country being described.AS is an upper-middle-income, emerging market economy and has been so for over 50 years. AS has an abundant supply of natural resources and a diversified well developed economy which boasts a service sector which accounts for more than 65% of total economic activity. AS has shown impressive GAP growth since it was welcomed back onto the international stage after spending many years in economic isolation from the rest of the world. AS has a functional infrastructure which falls short predominantly in the shortage of energy which has contributed to slowing economic growth.Eskimo, the AS parental power supplier, is building two new MAMMA coal fired power stations (Medium and Sessile) which were due to come on line in 2012 and when finally completed should relieve the energy crisis AS has faced since 2007. AS faces a number of other challenges which will be discussed in the odd of this assignment. If AS is to escape the middle income trap it needs to realism a GAP growth in excess of 6% for over 20 years. IN has a long history which includes British colonization.After years of passive civil disobedience and resistance to British rule, by the likes of Mahatma Ghanaian, IN finally got its independence in 1947. Economic reforms in 1991 helped IN to average over 6% growth from 1998 to 2014. India has a rapidly developing economy that is well diversified specializing in the IT and business service sectors capitalizing on a highly educated and skilled workforce. IN has many challenges including a large population many of whom live in abject poverty, government corruption and pollution which has caused extensive damage to the environment.GE in terms of purchasing power parity (POP) is the 5th largest economy in the world and boasts the largest economy in Europe. GE is considered a upper-income developed economy and is renowned as a leading machinery, car, chemical and technology exporter in the world market. GE has a highly productive, highly skilled, technical and well educa ted population which enables them to remain competitive on the European and global stage. In 1999 GE and 10 other European countries formed the European Union (EX.) and they introduced a common currency called the Euro.GE has committed to decommission all its Nuclear power stations, which account for 25% of Gee's power supply, by 2022. GE is investing extensively in renewable resources and is emerging as a world leader in this sector. 2. Discussion Inflation 2. 1 There are many causes of inflation, we take a look at a few of the causes in the context of the countries in the spotlight: Demand factors Rise in production costs Exchange rate fluctuations The crude oil price The cost of labor. Fig. A. In Appendix A indicates the average annual inflation for AS, IN and GE from 1995 to present and extrapolated to 2020. From Fig. A. L, it can be noted that GE a developed country has a very stable inflation rate that is consistently low averaging 1. 56% for the period 1995 to 2014. The preva iling reason for this is that GE has a very strong stable currency and is not exposed to exchange rate fluctuations. GE also has a very low population growth with an average year on year of -0. 4% for the period 1996 to 2014 which means any increase in demand for goods from GE has to come room the global market and not within its own borders. The rise in production costs as a result of high labor costs in GE possibly accounts for the majority of the inflation. GE has to large extent countered inflation by mechanizing production and reducing labor inputs coupled with the fact they have a highly skilled, educated and productive workforce which counters the high cost of labor in GE.Germany inflation is extrapolated, using a moving average calculation, to 2020. Consideration was given to GE stable inflationary history and the strict austerity measures the EX. has chosen since the global recession in 2008. In contrast to the stability of inflation in GE, inflation in AS and IN the two de veloping countries has been extremely volatile. Although AS and IN have positive population growth and a growing middle income population which feeds internal demand for goods and services the AS and IN economies remain heavily reliant on the rest of the world.On the 18 July 2014, Gill Markus the SARA governor hiked interest rates by 25 basis points in an attempt to curb inflation. The hike in interest rates should have an effect on reducing inflation as the cost of credit increases and consumers tighten their belts. The extrapolation of the AS inflation data to 2020 is a mathematical moving average keeping within the targets set by the SARA of 3-6%. There is a growing risk that inflation is likely to exceed the SARA targets.Due to pressure in terms of slow economic growth SARA is unlikely to hike interest rates by too much as this would stifle economic growth. Business in AS is coming under increased pressure from Labor. MIMIC and NINJA Strikes in the Platinum belt coupled with the current NASSAU strike will inevitably increase the cost of labor which in turn will have a knock on effect on increasing inflation. The NC government are considering alternate employment development incentives which if successful will help reduce the cost of labor, accelerate economic growth and reduce inflation.AS is extremely exposed to crude oil price hikes and exchange rate fluctuations which cause the cost of imported goods to raise with a rise in exchange rates. SOLO has the potential to provide a buffer to the oil price and effects of exchange rate on landed oil price; however they operate on an import parity pricing model. The competitions commission has handed down heavy nines on SOLO and the regulation of the SOLO import parity pricing model is highly likely.This will roll out to the Plastics industry in AS and should have a positive effect on Job creation, lower input costs and effectively lower inflation. 2. 2 Economic Growth Fig. A. 2 in Appendix A indicates the gross domestic product (GAP) of three countries AS, IN and GE for the period 1995 to 2020. On the primary vertical axis is billions of international dollars the measure using purchasing power parity (POP) theory which enables us to negate the effects of exchange rates between countries and compare GAP in real terms.The GAP POP measure is interesting in that it shows the relative size of the 3 economies to each other. We can see Just how small AS is in terms of the bigger players and although this may be disconcerting it is important to remember that AS has the 23 largest economy in the world. On the secondary vertical axis (Fig. A. 2 in Appendix A) we can see the percentage change year on year in GAP. Between 1995 and 2007 AS and IN experienced 3. 6% and 6. 9% growth year on year. GE was not as successful with average growth of only 1. 6% over the same period.Then came he great recession or economic meltdown of 2008/2009 where all 3 countries saw a downturn in GAP especially AS and GE who registered a negative GAP growth in 2009. Inn's GAP growth only dipped to Just over 5% in 2009 showing a resilient economy not overly exposed to the rest of the world. In the recovery phase all three countries recovered well however a second dip in 2011 to 2012 hit IN the hardest and IN dipped to Just under 4% GAP growth in 2012. AS hosted the 2010 FIFE world cup soccer which created large scale infrastructural spending by the government through the recession period helping to boost the AS economy.Extrapolating GAP growth into 2020 for IN there is likely to be sustained albeit slower GAP growth. IN has a burgeoning youth who are very well educated, are willing to work for very little and can converse extremely well in English giving IN a competitive advantage on the global market in the business service sector. IN is however coming under a lot of pressure from the Philippines who are competing in similar global markets in the business service and IT support sectors. IN needs to loo k to new industries in order to sustain its GAP growth.Extrapolating GE GAP growth to 2020 we note that GE has a eclipsing population however with their commitment to renewable resource energy technology and the growing emphasis in the world on green initiatives it is likely that Germany will capitalist on this advantage in order to sustain very moderate GAP growth. GE has a responsibility to other EX. countries and the poor performance of other EX. players could curb economic growth in GE. AS has a lot of challenges it needs to overcome in order to achieve sustained growth and escape the middle- income economy trap that has been its nemesis for the last 50 years.AS needs to address its labor issues and overcome the growing gap between rich and poor. The world economic forum competitiveness report indicates a host of positive factors which AS can build on however there are a number of shortcomings and AS needs to address these if it wants to continue to grow its economy. Extrapolati ng AS growth to 2020, it is difficult to foresee the current AS government under its leadership making any major inroads to solving the macro economic problems that will allow AS to realism larger GAP growth.Coupled to this the fact that AS is highly dependent on China and Europe for economic growth, the outlook for AS is moderate and we could e stagnation or even a decline in GAP over the next few years. Extrapolating IN growth to 2020, we perceive continued high GAP growth which exceeds 6% annually possibly coming under pressure if the world market does not accommodate this growth and as it comes under increasing pressure from global competition I. E. Philippines. 2. 3 Unemployment Fig. A. In Appendix A indicates the unemployment rates as a percentage of the economically active population in AS, IN and GE. IN has the smallest reported unemployment rate of the three countries with an average over the period 1995 to 2014 of Just under 4%. GE which also boasts a very low unemployment rate has an average of 8. 3% for the same period. AS has an alarmingly high unemployment rate with an average of Just over 24% over the same period. What is most disconcerting is in spite of the fact that AS has shown relatively consistent GAP growth the unemployment rate has continued to grow.The AS government (the NC) is part of a tripartite alliance with COATIS (trade union) and the ASAP (communist party). Until this alliance is broken it is unlikely AS will review labor regulations which would make it easier for business to employ more people. According to Eddie Rood, AS does not have an unemployment problem it has an employment problem. In other words it is too difficult for business to employ people and until regulations are focused more in favor of the employer than the employee the unemployment rate in AS is likely to consistently increase until 2020.In GE and IN there is likely to be very little change in the unemployment rate shown in the extrapolation which is a weighted moving average extrapolated through to 2020. 2. 4 Exchange Rates Fig. A. 4 in Appendix A indicates the average annual exchange rates for AS, IN and GE or the period 1995 to 2020. The primary vertical axis indicates IN Rupees exchange rate to the US dollar (USED) and the secondary vertical axis indicates Rand's and German Marks to the USED. GE which is a developed upper-income country has the least volatile exchange rate and has yielded an average of 0. 3 German Marks and Euro from 2002 to the USED. The IN Rupee and the AS rand, although depicted on different scales, have followed very similar trends indicating the volatility and dependence of developing countries currency on external global economic factors. The AS Rand is under a lot of pressure at present with regular service delivery protests and wildcat strikes like the platinum belt strike and the current NASSAU metal workers strikes followed by the ASIATIC strike due to commence on Thursday 24 July 2014.Coupled to this poor G AP growth, corruption, lack of service delivery and lackluster leadership from the ruling party is promoting uncertainty and possibly long term negative sentiment. Extrapolation of the exchange rate data for all 3 countries was carried out based on the MIFF projections on GAP in national currency vided by GAP in dollars. This extrapolation was double checked against factors that might influence the exchange rate in the form of Inflation, Gold Price, supply and demand for USED and SARA monetary policy.In the case of AS the possibility that AS becomes less attractive to foreign investors and the inflow of USED reduces is highly likely. The net effect of fewer dollars inflow into AS can result in a weaker rand. The SARA has a very strict fiscal policy which pegs the targeted inflation rate in AS at 3 to 6%. Under the watchful eye of Gill Markus the SARA attempts to curb inflation by easing the Report Rate which is the rate at which the SARA lends money to other banks.By raising the Rep ort rate the cost of credit is increased which in turn should reduce demand and with less money there should be less demand for goods forcing the price of goods to come down subsequently reducing Inflation. If inflation is lowered then the risk of AS goods becoming too expensive, (as a result of inflation increasing production costs), on the export market is reduced. AS is the world's 5th largest Gold producer and gold production and exports account for a large percentage of the inflow of SAID. A change in the price of gold has a large effect on the inflow of dollars which can subsequently lead to a depreciation of the rand.Although the USED is one of the most sought after and used currencies in the world fluctuations in the USED with specific reference to the appreciation of the USED can mean the Rand will depreciate. IN is subject to the same forces as AS with respect to exchange rates and the sum of these forces account for the volatility of the two currencies. A weaker exchange rate promotes local manufacturing due the opportunities to gain higher margins on the international markets. The volatility of the developing countries currencies counteracts a large portion of potential growth, due to relative uncertainty and high risk.It would be better if the exchange rate was consistently weak or even if it was consistently strong it would allow for less risk in investments into capital. Extrapolating GE exchange rate to 2020 is easier as the variability is small and we do not expect to see much change in exchange rates from GE as shown on Fig. AAA in Appendix A. In the case of AS and IN extrapolated to 2020 we expect to see a rise in exchange rates and a tapering off towards 2020. Both IN and AS will remain exposed to world economic forces and inflows and outflows of portfolio foreign investment. 2. 5 Interest Rates Fig. A. In Appendix A indicates the Interest rates for AS, IN and GE for the period 1997 to 2020. Interest rate refers to a rate which is charged f or the use of or loan of money. The interest rate which is depicted in Fig. A. 5 in Appendix A refers to the rate at which the reserve bank lends to other banks. The interest rate is one of a number of tools used by the reserve banks (central banks) to tighten or relax the monetary policy. The general trend for all three countries is a relaxing of their respective monetary policy in terms of interest rates as we see a big decline in interest rates for the period 1997 to 2014.The expectation with a lower interest rate is that credit is cheaper and money supply would grow quickly driving economic growth as the demand for goods and services increases and producers scramble to catch up with demand. Fig. A. L in Appendix A indicates that all three countries have been experiencing positive GAP growth barring the 2008/2009 world economic recession. The effect of pressure on supply of goods and services tends to drive the price up as odds and services become scarcer and consumers are willin g to pay more this drives inflation up.The SARA has set targets of 3 to 6% on Inflation as it is a proportional measure of the effects of hiking or lowering interest rates. The 2008/2009 recession has caused a slower demand for credit and lower interest rates from all 3 countries especially GE with interest rates of well below 1% is an attempt by the Deutsche Bundestag to fuel the GE economy. In AS, the SARA has raised interest rates (tightened fiscal policy) in an attempt to curb inflation and keep it within the 3 to 6% targets. The data for the 3 countries is extrapolated to 2020 based on a moving average.In AS the Interest Rate trend from 2014 to 2020 is predicted upwards to as high as 9% in 2020 as AS inflation and exchange rates remain under pressure and the SARA attempts to control the inflation within its targets. In IN the interest rates are predicted to continue to reduce to 2020 to stimulate the IN economy to grow. The pressure on food sources in India could drive Inflatio n upwards causing an increase in the interest rates. Similarly in GE the interest rates are expected to remain low with a gradual rise from 2014 to 2020.Contrary to the economic recovery plan adopted in USA (economic stimulus plan), GE and its EX. partners have opted for a more conservative approach and austerity measures have caused a slowdown in private spending. In order to fuel the economy and provide cheap credit the interest rates are extremely low yet GAP growth remains slow. Until there is an upturn in the economy interest rates in GE are likely to remain very low from 2014 to 2020. 2. 6 Trade Balance and Current Account Balance Fig. A. 6. 1 in Appendix A indicates the trade balance in AS, IN and GE for the period 995 to 2020.The trade balance is calculated by subtracting total import payments from total export earnings including gold and non-gold products. AS and GE are shown in USED on the secondary vertical axis and IN is shown on the primary axis. Trade balances for all 3 countries follow similar trends to the current account balance. The platinum strikes which lasted 5 months will have a negative effect on the balance of trade and subsequently the current account balance. Fig. A. 6. 2 in Appendix A indicates the current account balance in AS, IN and GE for the period 1995 to 2020.The current account includes trade balance and service, income and transfer receipts less service, income and transfer payments. Fig. A. 6. 2 primary vertical axis indicates the IN and AS current account balance in USED. The secondary vertical axis indicates the GE current account balance in USED. We can see that up until 2001 GE was running a marginal current account deficit and how they have turned this deficit into a large current account surplus. Germany is a leading technology supplier and has developed strong trade relations with China and the rest of the world.On the back of the Chinese and world economic growth the Germans have been able to capitalist and show a g rowing current account surplus. IN and AS who were pretty much break even on current account balance up until 2004 have embarked on development strategies. As can be seen in Fig. A. 6. 2 in Appendix A, IN has been a lot more aggressive in borrowing money and growing the current account deficit than AS. AS is often accused by world investors for not borrowing enough to boost development and economic growth.Extrapolating the data on to 2020 1 have taken the MIFF projections to 2018 and extrapolated to 2020 using a moving average calculation. AS would be expected to grow the current account deficit as they spend more on infrastructure in an attempt to stimulate the economy. AS imports a large variety of goods and services and exports predominantly natural resources. It would be wise for AS to develop industry that can add value to the natural resources in order to add value and ultimately increase its export value whilst simultaneously decreasing the need to import. . 7 Money Supply an d Credit Growth Money growth is shown on the primary vertical axis and credit growth as a percentage of GAP is shown on the secondary vertical axis for all three countries. The creation of money is largely dependent on bank deposits which when this money is leant out by the bank triggers the money creating process. The balance of payments and government finances are both major contributing factors to the creation of money. Gross savings, credit growth are also triggers for money growth as they contribute to the amount of bank deposits.Fig. A. 7. 1 in Appendix indicates MM annual money growth and credit growth as a percentage of GAP growth. Although there is considerable offset between the 3 countries the money growth trends year on year between all three countries are very similar. In the years preceding 2008 AS and IN showed consistent annual MM money growth of above 10%. In the global recession of 2008/2009 AS was hardest hit and dropped down to a money growth of just over 2% but has recovered to Just over 5% and is expected to be sluggish in money growth extrapolating to 2020.IN managed to remain less effected by the global recession and has retained annual money MM growth in excess of 10%. IN is expected to show more conservative money growth figures to 2020 as the world economy remains sluggish. GE has shown a reduced money MM growth and is even wowing negative money growth since 2009. The trend extrapolated to 2020 is expected to remain much the same. In AS credit growth as a percentage of GAP is extremely high at an average of over 185% of GAP since 2004. In comparison to GE (129%) and IN (67%) for the same period.The growth in credit does not result in bank deposits and subsequently an increase in credit growth has a negative impact on money growth. 2. 8 Budget Deficit and Government Debt Fig. A. 8 in Appendix A indicates the budget deficit and government debt as a percentage of GAP for AS, IN and GE for the period 1995 to 2020. The budget deficit for all three countries is shown on the primary vertical axis and the government debt for all 3 countries is shown on the secondary vertical axis. As a general rule of thumb the budget deficit should not exceed 3%.Since the late sass's AS has managed to consistently achieve budget deficits lower than 3% and in 2006 even managed to achieve a budget surplus. Since 2007 the budget deficit for AS and IN has increased with the AS budget consistently above the illusive 3% value. Since the 2008 and 2009 recession the AS government has, in similar fashion to the USA government's tumulus plan, understandably been spending more in an attempt to fuel the economy and stimulate much needed economic growth. Similar to AS IN has increased government debt and is slowly bringing their budget deficit down from deficit in excess of 10% to below 9% and trending downwards.GE has decreased its government debt as a percentage of GAP and has firm control of its budget deficit showing consistent budget surpluse s since 2012. Extrapolating the budget deficits to 2020 we can expect GE to remain in a surplus situation with AS stabilizing and remaining at Just above 4% with a possibility of returning to below 3% budget deficit. IN is expected to perform well and reduce their budget deficit to below 7% consistently to 2020. In terms of Government debt, GE is expected to consistently reduce government debt in line with the conservative economic plan and in line with EX. guidelines.AS is expected to increase government debt up to 2020 as it needs to stimulate economic growth through government spending. IN will continue to reduce government debt to 2020 as indicated in Fig. A. 8 in Appendix A. 2. 9 Gross Fixed Capital Formation the AS public to start to save. The Gross savings for all three countries has been extrapolated based on a moving average. . 10 Human Development Index Fig. A. II in Appendix A indicates human development index (HID) for AS, IN and GE for the period 1995 to 2020.The HID is a measurement of life expectancy, educational attainment and income. The value expressed by HID is a value between O and 1 . The human development index is a measure of equality within a country and a value of 1 would mean perfect equality and O would mean perfect inequality. As expected GE the developed country has the highest HID rating with an average of over 0. 9 since 2005. AS comes in second place with an average of 6. 19% from 2005 to 2014. AS has nee of the world's most progressive constitutions and is based on the belief that AS belongs to all who live in it.AS is not without its equality challenges and unemployment, declining education system (WEFT global competitiveness report rates AS education as 46th out of 148 countries), high crime rates (rape in AS is the highest in the world), and widening gap between rich and poor. IN score worst on the HID as a result of a large population many of whom live in abject poverty. It is however nice to see that things in IN are chang ing and they have come a long way since 1995 when they scored only 0. HID and in 2014 they scored 0. 56 Just less than AS.Extrapolating GE HID to 2020 we SE no reason for any change and expect to see consistent value Just above 0. 9 for the whole period 2014 to 2020. Extrapolating AS HID to 2020 we expect the effects of a less competitive education system coupled with increasing unemployment, growing crime rate and widening of the gap between rich and poor to stagnate any improvements and predict a possible decrease in the HID for AS over the period 2014 to 2020. Inequality in IN is still a problem and we predict moderate improvement in HID but until there is a fundamental change especially in

Monday, July 29, 2019

What is the Gilgamesh Epic or Stories and how does it compare with the Research Paper

What is the Gilgamesh Epic or Stories and how does it compare with the Biblical account of the flood - Research Paper Example The epic story has been of great interest to Christians since it has a lot of comparison with the biblical story of Noah. In connection to this, the main of this paper is to compare the Gilgamesh epic story with the biblical account of the flood. The author of the poem talks about a relationship between Gilgamesh and Enkidu. Enkidu was a king but he was very self-centred while Gilgamesh was a bully (Meyers 4). Therefore, when the two became friends, they kept checking on one another. The relationship, Gilgamesh had with the king, made the citizens of the country to like him very much. In connection to this, when the king passed, he was appointed to become the king. Although, the relationship Noah had with God was a little different from the relationship Gilgamesh had with Enkidu but still some comparison can be drawn. For example, God was annoyed by the way, mankind was sinning (Epic of Gilgamesh 7). Therefore, he wanted to destroy the whole earth, but because He loved Noah very much, He decided to spare the earth. It is this for Noah that is why God decided to give mankind a second chance. So, He instructed Noah to construct a big arch. The purpose of the arch was to house animals of different kinds both male and female, so that during the destruction of the world they can be spared. After becoming the king Gilgamesh started competing with God, he decided to look for ways of becoming immortal. It is this completion with the gods that annoyed them. According to the author, the gods were so angry with king that they wanted to destroy the whole world. However, because there was some other people in the town who were righteous, the gods decided to give them another chance (Kelly 7). Therefore, the gods instructed one of the servant, who according to them was righteous to build a big arch (Epic of Gilgamesh 8). Then he was strictly instructed to choose only those people who were living according to the lands of the law, and take them to the

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Nike Growth Strategy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Nike Growth Strategy - Essay Example At the time of entering foreign markets such as Japan, Europe, and others Nike Inc used the strategy of opening flagship stores and franchise. Flagship stores proved quite successful for Nike Inc due to its strength of generating compelling products that might excite the target customers. Major befit of franchising is that the company does not have to take the total risk of foreign investment. The franchise owners take all possible risks and also finance the maximum percentage of start-up cost. On the other side, the company takes more than 50% of profit for from the franchisees as their brand value. This is one most cost-effective entry process of any business for foreign market entry. Along with franchising, the company also prefer opening of flagship stores in new markets as an effective entry mode. Though this mode is comparatively more cost and risk associated strategy the company can present strong market awareness and brand presence in the new market. Again, the flagship store mode of entry allows the company to enjoy 100% profit from sold goods in these stores. In 1992, the company under consideration decided to enter India in association with SIEPL or Siera Industrial Enterprise Private Limited. The objective of Nike was to tap the Indian market and to receive royalties. The WestEnd Store of the company is the resultant of partnership with Timera Group which is also a leader in the wholesale and retail manufacturing across the areas of U.S., Europe, and the Middle East.

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Wilhelm Leibniz's Philosophical Writings Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Wilhelm Leibniz's Philosophical Writings - Essay Example Mathematicians still use Leibniz's notations and symbols as standards. (Burnham, 2001) This paper also discusses his philosophical writings which span decades. Leibniz was a child prodigy. According to differing sources, his father was a metaphysicist and/or a professor of moral philosophy. Regardless, as a true Renaissance man, Gottfried matured into both and many other things too. He studied law and religion. He sought a way to unite Roman Catholics and Protestants by means of a new Christian theology. He proficiently spoke Latin and Greek before his teen years, and later learned Hebrew. (Speck and Reilly, 1998-2007) Of course, he was a mathematician of the highest capability in his times. A stigma came with his invention (discovery and development) of calculus. His work came quickly on the heels of Sir Isaac Newton's work founding calculus. In scholarly circles there were significant conflicting claims about who deserved credit for fathering the new field of math. Factions of supporters for both great men wanted their man to have sole plaudits. Some accounts of history say this contentiousness stunted the progress of advanced mathematics for almost a century. (Burnham, 2001. see "1. Life" 3) However, Leibniz's works in logic, ethics, morality, truth, reason and theology are the main focus here. They intertwined into a core philosophy that culminates in goodness; more specifically, God's goodness. Leibniz has three main writings dwelling on the essence and marriage of these diverse but related topics. Scholars have pulled them together. They are: - "Philosophical Investigations" (1670), found on the internet citing Leibniz's quotes by number and page - "Theodicy" (1710), a study of good and evil, wrestling with the Question of Evil - "Monadology, Monad" (1714), alludes to 'wave particles' by propounding "connectivity" of all things Leibniz didn't actually publish until very late in his life, 1710 and 1714. Many of his profound concepts have been culled from letters and other documents. He was a "deep thinker" by the standards of any era. He connected the physical "real world" with the metaphysical. Many of his ideas would be incomprehensible to most people today. Those able to stay abreast would be quite challenged on both philosophical and scientific levels of thought. A culture of admiring and critically appraising philosophers, ethicists and moralists pore over and through Leibniz's ideas. Physical scientists have expanded upon his inferences and surmising (combined with those of others, as well) on the composition of the universe. Progenitor of Wave Theory - A Physical Sphere It wasn't called Wave Theory in 1700. But, Leibniz intuited that all matter is somehow connected. He gave credit and responsibility to God. Since then, standing on the "connectivity" concept, physicists have arrived at Wave Structure Matter (WSM). (Haselhurst and Howie, 1998-2007. "Philosophy") The gist of WSM is that waves [of connectivity] course through space between all things that humankind perceives to be separate objects. Leibniz was a stout proponent of such connectivity. Without the technology to delve deeper into finding physical proof, he rationalized a system of thought that was largely based on an a priori rationale about the metaphysical. Since then, physicists, with technological advantages that

Friday, July 26, 2019

Personal and Professional Practice Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Personal and Professional Practice - Assignment Example Appropriate skills coupled with market opportunities determines the best career an individual can adopt. These exceptional skills may fail to materialize if they are not nurtured and developed in the appropriate career environment. Once an individual has identified the most appropriate career based on the set of skills, the next step is to create a strategic plan of entering into the career field and achieving the desired goals within the stipulated period. In alignment with the works of William (2010), my career action plan will encompass 3 years. This will serve as a systematic strategy, which highlights on the steps, and actions with respect to the previous self-evaluation assessment. My strengths include exceptional communication, planning, and leadership skills. I am also enthusiastic, idealistic, and imaginative. In dealing with other members of society, I apply my intuitive personality and persuasion qualities to steers people towards the desired direction. With respect to the available opportunities, I choose pursue the career field of management. After settling on undertaking management, I will seek more information and clarifications from career advisors. This will enhance my identification of the best mentors in the field of management. ... includes securing a first line management job within the first three months, demonstrating competence and gaining experience within the first five months after securing the job and striving to attain the team leader position after the first year. In the first half of the second year, I will use the gained experience and my interpersonal skills to co-ordinate the processes of the team in meeting their deliverables within the given period. By the end of the second year, I am striving to be promoted to the rank of assistant manager in any of the company’s department. My final goal is to head a department by the end of the third year. Based on these goals, I will initiate my plan by identifying potential employers of young managers within the first one month of the first year. I will collect information and profile details of these employers from advertisement articles, magazines, and newspapers. I will also identify the employers from online advertisement databases. Application o f the suitable positions advertised will be the second step after acquiring the employer’s information. I will submit professional resumes detailing all my strengths and weaknesses. Thereafter, I will present my academic credentials to the head offices of the identified parties. All these are in accordance with the principles of developing an action plan as illustrated by William (2010) in his works. Once in the job, I will demonstrate my competence by applying the technical concepts of management in handling any assignment at my disposal. I will strive to acquaint myself with the company’s mission, objectives, and the ethical code of conducts. According to Tricia (2009), being conversant with these three elements will facilitate the performance of my day-to-day responsibilities within the

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Development proposal for UK Fashion footwear retailer Essay

Development proposal for UK Fashion footwear retailer - Essay Example The essay "Development proposal for UK Fashion footwear retailer" talks about UK Fashion footwear retailer and analyzes Light Feet Ltd. Key Note (2012, p. 1) points out that the UK footwear market demonstrated an increase in expenditure by consumers on foot wear by 18% in 2008. This expenditure is related to the fact that substitute retail shops have led to competitive pricing for footwear and a resultant motivation of consumers to make more purchases. Light Feet Ltd requires to be aware of the competitive business environment within the UK footwear market so that managerial decisions on strategy and competitive advantage would be focused at overcoming the threat that substitute retail shops for footwear would pose on the company. In accordance to Business Wire (2012, p. 5), the switching costs of consumers within the UK footwear market are relatively low. This means that consumers would easily change the retailers from whom they buy footwear to substitute dealers without incurring s ignificant costs. In this regard, the company’s pricing policy must ensure that competitive prices are provided to the consumers so that the inclination of the buyers for substitute retailers for footwear can be overcome or reduced. It is therefore the performance of the company in pricing and tradeoffs with its advantages over the substitute retailers that competitiveness within the UK footwear market can be achieved. The UK footwear industry is highly competitive as illustrated by the values of imports. that various retailers have achieved from different global markets as presented on the figure below. Supplier Power Porter (2008, p. 82) demonstrates that the competitiveness of a company within a market is determined by the ability of a company to apply strategic business approaches which are aimed at taking advantage of the supplier power. In this regard, Light Feet Ltd must perform a market research and analysis in order to determine the power that the manufacturers of fo otwear within the UK have on the retailer who deal in these products. This will allow the company to make right choices and informed decisions on its relationship with the manufacturers of the footwear brands that it sells within this market. Through effective relationship with the suppliers or manufactures of footwear, the company will be able to win the confidentiality of the suppliers and as a result ensure a constant supply of footwear. This is an important consideration because it determines the ability of the company to meet the demand in the markets. Moreover, constant supply will allow Light Feet Ltd to meet the needs of its loyal and new customers for variety of footwear products. In the supply of footwear within the UK market various outlets have demonstrated competitive advantage as illustrated on the table below.    1995 2000 2005 2008 Shoe Shops 45 37 33 30 Sports and Outdoor shops 14 19 17 15 Clothing Stores 12 11 14 17 Grocery Superstores 5 7 8 7 Mail order/online 1 0 9 10 11 Other Retailers†  14 17 18 20 Total 100 100 100 100 Mintel Oxygen Reports (2012, p. 1) reveal that the footwear market in the UK is complex

Statistics-demographic reports Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Statistics-demographic reports - Essay Example From the General summary report it is evident that if we rank students on the basis of their educational status, then we will come to know that the highest percentage of students i.e. 44.19% is completing their bachelor’s degree. 33.99% of students are related to graduate degree that’s why ranked at 2nd place in 2000 Educational Attainment. Therefore, the product should be introduced in the market by keeping the students of this age group in your mind as they appear to be significantly large segment in the region. Before pricing the product, the household income needs to be considered. The change in median household income is 123.60% from 1980 to 1990 and 68.10% from 1990 to 2000. The percentage changes for average household income are 178.80% and 69.50% from 1980 to 1990 and from 1990 to 2000 respectively. Similarly, percentage changes for per capita income are 184.00% and 65.60%. Among three categories average household income has the highest income in 2000 and the highest percentage change for household income. So, the new snack food should be launched by keeping average household income in mind. According to the given data, the percentage changes of the people with salary $150,000 + is highest so, the target market for the products should be the people having salary above $150,000 +. However, if the new snack is going to have a low to average price then other income groups can be also targeted. In addition, it is also important to consider which the income bracket of the target market. The highest percentages of the people of the ages less than 25, 65-74 and 75+ earn Less than $10,000. The highest percentages that are 15.87%, 14.43%, 11.86% and 11.50% of people of ages 25-34, 35-44, 45-54 and 54-64 respectively earn $100,000 - $124,999. So, the people having salary range $100,000 - $124,999 should be targeted for this product. The people having salary range $75,000 to $99,999 also have large percentages

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Ethical Issues of companies Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Ethical Issues of companies - Essay Example In simple words, there is more harm than gain from whistle-blowing in the current setting. As a result, this action is wrong under the utilitarianism framework. This framework states that only those actions should be taken which gives greater good to the society than the costs. In this case, there are more costs associated with the action than the benefits and hence I should be passive and let how things move on until I decide to whistle blow, which is not an option at the moment. If we look at the risks associated with whistle blowing, they are loss of jobs for employees, company's reputation at stake, my job in jeopardy and the chance that the company may lose market share against the major competitor. The gains from the action will be people would be aware about Delectable's nonexistent quality control and this can lead them into making a better choice. However, weighing the two options, one feels that there are greater risks than gains and hence I should not whistle blow. A2) the attitude of workers is purely materialistic at the moment. They are paid on piece rate and hence they want to produce as much goods as possible while ignoring the quality of what they manufacture. The policy of quality control won't be effective in the current company's culture as workers are just trying to make more goods as they are paid on the basis of how much they produce and because quality control may hinder the speed of their work, the policy won't be as effective as it will be in other settings. There are a lot of issues that the management needs to readdress looking at the attitudes of workers and supervisors on the factory floor. First of all, the management needs to incorporate in people that the workers should respect the people from higher level of hierarchy instead of blocking their work. This can be done by the management by showing them their authority and by firing those people who do not cooperate with the top brass. The main pressure is that the workers a re not willing to cooperate and the situation can only improve if either the authority is delegated to the quality control department or the management itself fires or threaten people who are hindering the efforts of the quality control department. PART B B1) The government and state faced a major challenge in the form of underfunding to deal with the health and safety issue. There is hardly any possibility that the current staff of 60 can see 16000 food businesses in Georgia. Similarly, Delectable employs thousands of people and government will be threatened to take any action against the company as it would mean loss of jobs and unemployment. However, government can counter the problem by staffing more people in order to keep check and balance on most of the businesses in the state. The government should try to encourage people and organizations to fund FDA by telling them it would improve the general condition of the food businesses in the country and ensure that their offerings are hygienic and comply with quality and control standards. Government can also encourage the businesses to act in a socially responsible way. This can be done by giving tax holidays to company where there is no quality cases recorded reported against the compa ny. The government can also levy stricter rules on food businesses which could levy harsh penalties on these business and can ask them disclose the quality and contr

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Finance Homework Chapter 04 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Finance Homework Chapter 04 - Essay Example Its initial inventory level is $375,000, and it will raise funds as additional notes payable and use them to increase inventory. How much can its short-term debt (notes payable) increase without pushing its current ratio below 2.0? The analysis reveals that while Barry’s liquidity is well within the industry standards, it is not collecting on its receivables efficiently. Most companies have a 30 day payment policy and the industry standard here is 35 days. It is taking Barry over twice that amount of time to collect. This presents a negative indication of the way the firm is being managed, one that is confirmed by the total assets turnover margin; it is half of the number which is standard for the industry. This means that sales are not what they should be. The management issues presented here also explain why, although Barry’s net profit margin is slightly higher than other companies in the industry, its return on assets and return on equity are significantly under the standards. The Extended Du Pont confirms this conclusion. Barry’s strengths are in its profit margin and liquidity; but if it doesn’t get its A/R collections on track and increase sales, its weaknesses could become o verpowering. Had Barry Computer doubled its sales, inventories, A/R, and common equity during 2005, the affect on this ratio analysis would be mixed. Doubling the company’s sales is not effective if Barry is not collecting on its receivables. If its customers are having difficulty paying their bills, Barry may not get paid at all. Accordingly, having more sales and product, as well as more A/R, will only positively impact Barry if management succeeds in collecting the money owed the company. If Barry was able to double the indicated categories without additional debt, then the debt-to-assets would improve beyond industry standards and, presumptively, the ROA and ROE would increase to a point closer to industry levels. Again,

Monday, July 22, 2019

Herman Millar Inc. Essay Example for Free

Herman Millar Inc. Essay The office furniture manufacturing industry market in the United States is very competitive since many companies offering similar products. Companies compete primarily on price, product and service quality, differentiation, design, speed of delivery and customer service. Firms compete within each market segment and are pressured by growing competition from overseas manufacturers particularly from China and Vietnam. Six manufacturers-Steelcase, Herman Miller, Haworth, HNI, Kimball International and Knoll-account for approximately 60% of the U. S. office furniture market. The remainder of the market is captured by a large number of small and privately owned businesses that successfully supply the local communitys retail demand. The large number of existing companies definitely shaped the landscape of the Chinese market competition. Furniture manufacturing industry concentration has increased in last couple of years because many operators have gone out of business. Following the downturn of US economy, high unemployment rates, have created an intensely competitive environment for existing players; faced with low margins and volatile input costs, many underperforming operators were forced to exit the market. However, as the economy will recover, demand for new office furniture is expected to increase, expanding the number of companies over the five years to 2016. In conclusion, the intensity of rivalry is moderately high. Although current concentration of the industry is a low, the trend of the industry is to become more competitive in future. This would decrease the potential future profit of department store industry. Threat of new entrants The barrier to entry in this industry are medium and are steady. In the US office furniture industry, the capital required to enter the industry is considerably higher. New operators entering the industry face various challenges, including existing and well established distribution networks among operators and suppliers. To remain price competitive, the new operators need to establish strong supply relationships with manufacturers and wholesalers in order to secure good quality and low-priced stock. Since the concentration is expected to rise, it places an indirect pressure on new entrants that need to invest more in advertising to develop brand and market awareness. Marketing and promotional activity must exceed that of the existing players to build customer awareness and overcome retailer resistance. Furthermore, the productivity difference between the small-sized companies and the large-sized companies is very large. The combination of all this evidence indicates that the entrant barrier into the US office furniture industry is relatively high. Bargaining power of Supplier The intense internal competition force for resources among the large number of manufacturers pushed the bargaining power of suppliers to the most significant influence on domestic furniture industry. This refers primarily to suppliers of most important goods i. e. raw material and electric power, which are used in intermediary consumption during furniture manufacture. Purchases of raw materials are the largest expense for the Office Furniture Manufacturing industry, accounting for about 43. 7% of industry revenue. This proportion is typical for manufacturing industries, since operators require significant raw materials to produce final outputs. Input materials used for office furniture include hardwood, such as oak, cherry and maple wood; plywood and veneers; steel; glass; plastic; and glue. During the five years to 2011, the prices of these inputs have been volatile, making it difficult for manufacturers to anticipate future spending and reduce costs. In general, rising commodity prices have negatively affected the industry, increasing purchase costs for manufacturers. Bargaining power of buyers According to the research of IBIS World, department store sales depend heavily on the financial health of the consumer sector, including per capita disposable income. During periods of economic recession and decreasing income of people, consumers cut their spending by delaying purchases or substituting brands’ products with lower level products. This is heavily influenced by the unemployment rate and general economic growth. In the periods of strong economic activity people’s disposable income increase, and vice versa. Threat of substitutes Furniture has been used for thousands of years and built mostly of wood. There is little evidence indicating that wood furniture will be totally replaced by some other material in the foreseeable future. In the industry of furniture manufacture probability of substitutes is almost impossible. Current global trends have a favorable influence on increase in demand for furniture, due to ever faster obsolescence and shorter furniture lifetime, i. . due to frequent changes in design and manufacture technology. Possible threat of trend changes exists, i. e. furniture made from other materials than wood, that is, various metals, plastics and glass. However, despite the reduction of wood in furniture manufacture in the past years, wood is expected to stay one of the most important raw materials for furniture manufacture, because of its advantages when compared with oth er materials. Question: What are the driving forces and the key success factors in the industry? Answer: Having contacts within key markets: It is preferable that manufacturers have established links with a number of customers, including wholesalers, contractors and retail outlets, rather than having one or two that account for the majority of their business. Guaranteed supply of key inputs: Established links with key suppliers enable a steady flow of key inputs and price locks, which may provide cost savings for bulk purchases. Flexible production processes: Furniture items are often custom-made. Producers must be able to adjust products to suit individual requirements. Adapting to changing customer preferences: Goods produced should reflect current trends favored by consumers in order to remain competitive. Highly trained workforce: Staff is required to assemble office furniture efficiently and provide quality workmanship. Question: How have the company’s values shaped its strategy and approach to strategy execution? Provide illustrations of how these values are reflected in company policies. Answer: Question: What is Miller’s strategy? Which of the five generic competitive strategies most closely fit the competitive approach that Miller is taking? What type of competitive advantage is Miller trying to achieve? Answer: They focus on a growth strategy, through innovative products and production processes. Reinvention and renewal. They survived the Great Depression and multiple recessions, recovered from the dot-com bust and were able to continue expanding overseas. They adapted to save the company, by introducing new designs. In 1996, Herman Miller began an aggressive drive to reinvent its operations and established a fruitful relationship with the Toyota Supplier Support Center. Unique to the office furniture industry, the relationship enabled the company to adopt and implement world-class, lean manufacturing processes based on the Toyota Production System principles. Through the Herman Miller Production System (HMPS), the company dramatically reduced manufacturing square footage and inventories, cut lead times for standard product from 8 weeks Question: What is your overall appraisal of Miller’s financial performance? Answer:

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Social Cognitive Perspective and Phenomenological Perspective

Social Cognitive Perspective and Phenomenological Perspective The quoted text is taken from Social Psychology (Hollway et al 2007, p.35). It challenges the accountability of certain methods in their ability to accurately reflect the reality of social phenomena. Implicitly understood in this statement is that qualitative methods are better suited than quantitative methods. Qualitative methods are better able to reflect richness and complexity of lived experience than quantitative methods which are capable of limiting, constraining and distorting it. This is a polemical stance that has accompanied the growth in qualitative methods since the 1980s. The Social Cognitive Perspective (SCP) and Phenomenological Perspective (PP) demonstrate how strikingly different methods can be. They have different epistemological stances and make different ontological claims. The nature of being (ontology) is understood differently in social psychology, such as the information-processing individual in a social context (SCP) or the experiencing, embodied individual in relation with  others (PP). Limitations and benefits of the SCP and the PP are illustrated by a critical review of Milgrams 1970s experiment on obedience to authority and the works of Eatough and Smith (2006) on feelings of anger in the context of the lives of individual women. Gregen, K.J. (1973) in his account of social psychology as History gave voice to a debate about the relative merits of social psychology methods. In particular whether social psychology as a discipline was scientific in nature or should be considered as contemporary history. Gregen argued that social psychology was a product of historical and cultural climates which constantly changed, producing theories and knowledge that did not prove to be consistent. In this light it was suggested that the prevailing quantitative scientific methods should give way to more descriptive accounts with appreciation for how knowledge is situated within a social-cultural-historic context. These themes of situated knowledge are highlighted by Milgrams findings on obedience to authority. Milgram demonstrated through his experimental conditions the potential for acts of cruelty to be committed by a stranger (research participant and executant) to another stranger (researcher assistant and victim) because they were following orders (researcher and authority figure). His findings have been widely cited and used in psychological text books as factual scientific accounts. They have however been criticised on a number of ethical and substantive terms (Holloway et al 2007, p.53). For example Milgram recorded that participants were observed to sweat, tremble, stutter, bite their lips, and groan as they found themselves implicated (Milgram, 1977, p. 112; in Holloway et al 2007, p.54). The use of deception and unnecessary stress to research participants is seen by many as being unjustifiable. Milgram himself was less concerned with the immediate distress caused and was satisfied that questionnaires sent after one year showed participants felt positively towards the experiment (Milgram, 1974, p.195 within Hollway et al 2007, p.52). In Milgrams time research ethics were not as developed as they are today. Arguably the overall benefit of the research was deemed more important than any minor stress caused. This insight is perhaps justifiable given Milgrams interest in trying to understand how hatred and persecution of Jews under Hitlers Nazi Germany could have happened. Milgrams experimental conditions in which one agent commands another to hurt a third reflected his underlying theory that elements of authority, executant and victim were central to obedience and hostility (Milligram, 1977, p.102; in Holloway et al 2007, p.53). Apart from ethics critics such as Harre 1979, p.105 argues that there are substantive problems with his study. Harre notes that the issue of trust was overlooked; trust as a possible response to power was likely key to participants behaviour as an executants. In fact 40% of participants did not follow the instruction to inflict pain on the victim, however these accounts are given little attention. Similarly the research setting was changed because of a perceived influence of Yale University on giving authority to the instruction to the executant. It was moved from the universitys laboratory to the basement and then to a nearby town called Bridgeport. But, Milgram, 1977, p. 116 believed that the level of obedience in Bridgeport, although somewhat reduced, was not significantly lower than that obtained at Yale with 48% vs. 65% opposed. 17% between sites can be interpreted as statistically significant (Holloway et al 2007, p.53). Ultimately the reliability and validity of Milgrams findings can be questioned on a number of points. Although Milgram sort scientific objectivity he failed to consider ethical questions fully, did not explore the relevance of the research settings or participants personal experiences. PP provides an interesting perspective to juxtapose with traditional scientific methods. It has in its own right a long established history dating back to the C18th from philosophical works by Edmund Husserl, Martin Heidegger, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Jean-Paul Sartre, et al (Smith Woodruff 2009). As an approach to social psychology it became popular alongside a humanistic perspective in USA during the second half of the C20th. It seeks detailed descriptions instead of explanations for human behaviour, addressing all aspects of a topic, and suspending judgements and assumptions that may be held by the researcher (Hollway et al 2007, p131). Linda Finlay (2009) in Debating Phenomenological Research Methods acknowledges that variations in methodology have flourished within PP. The competing visions of how to practice phenomenology stem from different philosophical values, theoretical preferences, and methodological procedures. Smiths Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) is however one that has become popular. Smith argues that his idiographic and inductive method, which seeks to explore participants personal lived experiences, is phenomenological in its concern for individuals perceptions. He also, however, identifies more strongly with hermeneutic traditions which recognize the central role played by the researcher, and does not advocate the use of bracketing (Smith, 2004). The competing visions of how to practice phenomenology stem from different philosophical values, theoretical preferences, and methodological procedures. Eatough and Smith (2006) used interpretative phenomenological analysis of feelings of anger in the context of the lives of individual women. Specifically they used descriptive tools to explore three analytic themes the subjective experience of anger, forms and contexts of aggression, and anger as moral judgment. They concluded that mean making is a fundamental process in how the participants formed emotions. The descriptive accounts from the interviews with Marilyn (one of the research participants) were given as a case in point. Eatough and Smith (2006) believed that Marilyns anger towards her mother was changed by her self-reflections and counselling. It can be argued that richness and complexity provided by PP in its account of womens anger by Eatough and Smith (2006) far outreaches that by its SCP counterparts. The SCP remains however the dominant perspective in social psychology and has been helped by innovations in research methods. For example, Fazio et al (1995) work that has built on the concepts of cognitive errors and biases implicated in prejudice thinking (Fiske and Taylor, 1991). Their research has suggested that subtle forms of prejudice are now more pervasive than blatant forms. Their experiment measured response times of white undergraduates when classifying stimulus words as either being positive or negative meaning; after viewing random photos of black and white faces. They found evidence of inhibition and facilitation effects which were largely automatic, unconscious associations, between the colour of faces and positive or negative evaluations. In conclusion, the quoted text implicitly suggests that methods such as those used by SCP can be limiting, constraining and distorting but perhaps this is only half the story. Although quantification can be accused of being myopic, failing to appreciate richness and complexity in the account of the social phenomena under question they often do so knowingly. The scientific tradition of looking for cause and effect relationships in social psychology continues to be dominant over other methodologies. This reflects the willingness of the discipline to continue to strive for objectivism, statistical reliability and validity, and ultimately for the advancement of practical application. Moreover, as Gregen, K.J. (1973) noted social psychology methods are constantly adapting and evolving the work of Fazio et al (1995) on subtle forms of prejudice being testament to this. In contrast richness and complexity of qualitative methods such as PP often comes at a cost as the research is time-consu ming may have limited practical application.

Health and Well-being for Individuals with Specific Needs

Health and Well-being for Individuals with Specific Needs DOINA BORSAN How the health and social care and system support individuals with specific needs After meeting Mr. Holland family, I can give you a report about his medical and physical state. He had hearing and visual impairment, over the years due to these impairments develops dementia which make him aggressive with people coming in close contact with him. His famil were looking for a placement for him where to have all support and assistance needed in his daily life, and they find that out Care Home is it perfectly fit with Mr. Holland. Mr. Holland has various care needs, for some of them we are fully compliant with it, for other we have to ask support for other professional organization. Visual impairment, in their 10th revision, WHO definitions for visual impairment, low vision and blindness was given in the International statistical classification of diseases, injuries and causes of death. In their surveys about visual impairments they said that the largest proportion of blindness is related to ageing. Although cataract is not a major cause of blindness, glaucoma is the second cause of blindness globally; age-related macular degeneration (AMD), is the third cause. Other causes of visual impairment are: corneal blindness which may be attributed to trachoma, trauma and vitamin A deficiency depending on area of living; diabetic retinopathy; childhood blindness; onchocerciasis. Jette and Branch in 1985 said that visual impairment as physical disability is it not related with increasing social disability, these are concepts having different determinants. Due to this disability Mr. Holland has a lack of non-verbal communication and misunderstanding of others attitude an d behaviour. The commune way to assisting Mr. Holland is to provide his glasses clean, walking stick if necessary and use style of communication that can minimize the difference that exist such us large print books, colourful/lighting signs and symbols what can help him to deal in the new setting. Hearing impairment,(HI) as a loos or reduction of ability to hear clear , is it other barrier to communicate effectively. As a person who use hearing aid, we had to ensure that is working properly, fitted correctly, had working batteries and is it clean to improve Mr. Holland hearing. Risk factors for HI other than age are genetic liability, infections, trauma, toxicity , diseases and noise exposure. Reduced speech perception and perception of non-verbal sound is it affecting people with HI and their opportunities to communicate effectively is made difficult, and create harmful psychosocial effects of HI. To help Mr. Holland to adapt in our environment due to his hearing impairment we can use a translated typewriter for phone calls, or passing an information, speak clear that he can read on our lips and if this impairment will evolve in time we will ask help for British Deaf Association, which can provide us a qualified British Sign Language, a form of sign language using hands and body language. MAKATON, a system who uses speech, signs and symbols can either help in communication process. Challenging behaviour, defined by WHO as a culturally abnormal behaviour indicated by individual or groups , which causes others problems, and which significantly interferes with the quality of life of all concerned. Causes of challenging behaviour are various, social isolation; stress ;clinical factors – medication, inadequate glasses, empty or no battery in hearing aid; frustration of not doing things like before; mental illness; disempowering by lack of ability to communicate. Some of the signs of challenging behaviour we can see in Mr. Holland by aggression towards others or self harm. The staff need to undergo training to ensure awareness of the types, causes and effects of Mr. Holland behaviour while we are a Care Home with less contact to respond effectively to triggers, signs and symptoms of challenging behaviour. Dementia comes from Latin, demens= dement â€Å"out of one`s mind†, describe brain disorders, a loss of brain function that is usually progressive and severe. A compulsive behaviour, aggression, increasing lack of personal care and personality change is a form of dementia. The damage caused to the brain cannot be repaired but we can learn to live with or to work with people having dementia. In our case Mr. Holland, can be involved in activities that can stimulate his creativity, speech problems can be helped by the appropriate therapy .Using GP`s support to provide help with medication and special investigations , Psychological and Mental health support from professional bodies to make easy integration in our environment. Following the legislation of Equality Act, Discrimination Act, Mental Capacity Act, Human Rights, Confidentiality Act, Institutional Policies and Procedures who protect the individuals in every position, care taker or receiver and CQC Standards which protect de system and make sure that the care standards are up, out Care Home is it aware of legislation in force. Sometimes it can be very hard to really understand people`s needs and we are tempting to rely on stereotyping, not making differences in individual`s needs. With adequate training and well informed about the issues we have to deal with, we can have a good idea about reactions and expectations of the individual. My conclusion is that we are able to coop with Mr. Holland needs and with some support of other organization we can give him an opportunity to live his life at the higher standards of caring. References : Ager A.O`May F.(2001),Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability ,Issues in the definition and implementation of â€Å"best practice† for staff delivery of interventions for challenging behaviour,Vol.26, Issue3,Pp. 243-256 A.C.Davis ,(1989),The Prevalence of Hearing Impairment and Reported Hearing Disability among Adults in Great Britain, International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol.18, Pp. 911-917. Berrios,G.E.,(1989),Non-cognitive symptoms and the diagnosis of dementia: Historical and clinical aspects. The British Journal of Psychiatry, Vol154(Suppl 4),Pp. 11-16. Gilbert CE, Anderton L, Dandona L, Foster A.(1999), Prevalence of visual impairment in children: a review of available data. Ophthalmic Epidemiology,Vol.6:73-82. Jette.A.M Branch G.L.,(1985),Impairment and disability in the aged, Journal of Chronic Disease ,Vol.38, Issue 1 World Health Organization. Prevention of blindness and deafness. Global initiative for the elimination of avoidable blindness. Geneva: WHO; 2000,Rev2. World Health Organization. International statistical classification of diseases, injuries and causes of death, tenth revision. Geneva: WHO; 1993 Wilson DH, Walsh PG, Sanchez L, et al, (1999). The epidemiology of hearing impairment in an Australian adult population. Int. J. Epidemiology, Vol. 28, Pp.247-52. Links 1

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Two Themes in Heart Of Darkness :: Heart Darkness essays

Two Themes in Heart Of Darkness There are many themes that run through the novel Heart of Darkness. There are however two main and significant ones. These are the theme of restraint and man's journey into self. The importance of restraint is stressed throughout Heart of Darkness. In the novel Marlow is saved by restraint, while Kurtz is doomed by his lack of it. Marlow felt different about Africa before he went, because the colonization of the Congo had "an idea at the back of it." Despite an uneasiness, he assumed that restraint would operate there. He soon reaches the Company station and receives his first shock, everything there seems meaningless. He sees no evidence here of that "devotion to efficiency" that makes the idea work. In the middle of this, Marlow meets a "miracle". The chief accountant has the restraint that it takes to get the job done. He keeps up his apearance and his books are in "apple-pie order." Marlow respects this fellow because he has a backbone. "The cannibals some of those ignorant millions, are almost totally characterized by restraint." They outnumber the whites "thirty to five" and could easily fill their starving bellies. Marlow "would have as soon expected restraint from a hyena prowling amongst the corpses of a battlefield." The cannibals action is "one of those human secrets that baffle probability." This helps Marlow keep his restraint, for if the natives can possess this quality Marlow feels he certainly can. Kurtz is the essence of the lack of restraint Marlow sees everywhere. Kurtz has "kicked himself loose from the earth." "He owes no allegiance to anything except those animal powers, those various lusts, those unpermitted aspirations lurking in the darkness of his inner station. Marlow also responds to these dark callings, and he almost becomes their captive. He confuses the beat of the drum (the call to man's primitive side) with his own heartbeat, and is pleased. Yet he does not slip over the edge as Kurtz does. Marlow keeps to the track. When he is confronted with the ultimate evil where a man "must fall back on (his) own innate strength, upon (his) own capacity for faithfulness," he is able to do so,

Friday, July 19, 2019

short story :: essays research papers

It was one of those nights that the sky was clear and the stars were visible. I had just defeated the stress of finals and was now ready to be back in action; the late night activity of the San Francisco underground scene was calling my name. It is where a person could go and walk down one street and probably visit at least 30 clubs by doing this. There was a particular flavor I was in search of this night, something that could make me exert my body to its fullest extent. I needed to go and release some stress by dancing at a club, I needed to let loose. When my friends Mike, Christina and I arrived in San Francisco our first destination was the Cat Club. It was a seedy little place hosted the break beat and jungle music. It wasn’t much to look at it, with its dark entrance and several vagrants sleeping in the street near the entrance. A different crowd hung out there. It was a mixture of old dance party burnouts and very young ambitious club-goers. I felt confident though, I was going to go in there and knock the crowd’s socks off. I was in my best fits (outfit); I was wearing my black old school Adidas running suit with white stripes, and a black Kangol hat. The Adidas Superstar shoes that I was wearing had my white fat laces in them, to add a little flavor, but the shoes themselves looked almost war torn; they were scared from many other late nights.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  As the line moved forward closer to the entrance of the club, I could feel the pulsating vibes of the music like a gust of wind every time the door was opened to allow other patrons into the club. It sounded wild in there, I was outside and I wanted to be in there so bad. Just the sound of the music and feeling of the vibration was making me more anxious then ever. I felt like a little kid waiting for Christmas. I needed to be inside, on the dance floor, just it and me. I was going to dance tonight. Suddenly, the line had stopped. What was going on? This couldn’t be happening I needed to be inside; I needed to feel weightless and sweaty from some fast paced break dancing. My legs were jittery with anticipation.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Truth and Art: Keatss Ode on a Grecian Urn :: Ode on a Grecian Urn Essays

Keats's "Ode on a Grecian Urn" offers a paradoxical concept of Beauty. It describes the frozen beauty portrayed on the Urn as sweeter than reality, for its expiration is a locked impossibility. The lover's kiss is sweeter when in waiting, and her timeless beauty and devotion are worth the kiss's impossibility. Thus, the observation of beauty is more sweet than its reception, and objects in their prime are best just before their expiration. This poem is reminiscent of Shakespeare's sonnets in its zeal for permanent youth and disdain for time's drain on youth's beauty. Yet, after all the desires for the Urn's timeless youth and beauty (an impossibility in reality), the poet ends with, "Beauty is truth, truth beauty-that is all / Ye know on earth, and all ye need to know." Keats objectifies and works to define beauty through his description of the Urn, or art in general. If the beauty found in the urn is an impossibility in reality, how can it be undeniable truth? "La Belle Dame sans Me rci" further complicates this question. Here, beauty is false trickery. The knight is pulled in by a mythical creature whose beauty and pleasing actions draw him into her lair, where she leads him to tragic ending on the cold hill's side. It can be deduced from this poem that Beauty is deceiving, and, consequently, not Truth. So what are we left with? "Ode on a Grecian Urn" implies that art represents Beauty. But this Beauty is impossible in the realm of reality; it can only be in the unmoving atmosphere of an Urn's surface. After four and a half stanzas supplying evidence of the scene's impossibility, the finishing lines inextricably link Beauty to Truth. The only way the art on the Urn can be viewed as having a place in reality, is the Urn's physical timelessness: "When old age shall this generation waste, / Thou shalt remain.

The Bourne Identity

‘The Borne Identity’, released in the year 2002, is a fascinating action-thriller flick. The movie borrows plot elements, characters and the title from a popular spy novel written by Robert Ludlum during the Cold War era. The movie is about a CIA operative who loses his memory and sets outs on a quest to reclaim his identity. He also faces the twin challenge of surviving his own doubts about his past and escaping from assassins hired by his own agency to hunt him down. The plotline is quite strong, if not unique, and has enough juice to keep the viewer interested till the very end.The movie offers a healthy dose of fight and chase sequences to the keep viewer engrossed amidst thrilling character development, brisk pacing and solid acting. Movie Synopsis This Universal Pictures production was directed by Doug Liman, while Matt Damon stars as Jason Bourne in the lead role. The main character Bourne is found shot and half-dead in a beach and rescued by fishermen. He has no memory of his past, as he suffers from severe amnesia. The only clue that he uncovers immediately is the account number and address of a Swiss bank, beaming out of a â€Å"miniaturized laser pointer from his hip† (Younkin 2).He desperately feels the urge to figure out his past and reclaim his identity. He begins a quest for reviving his identity by first going to Switzerland to look for answers and then follows the path laid by newly uncovered clues. In Switzerland, Bourne finds a gun and a lot of multiple currency money in his bank safety deposit. He also finds it bizarre that he possesses multiple fake passports under his name. Bourne is also surprised to learn about his exceedingly good martial art skills when confronted with a situation to fight for his life. When he tries to seek the aid of the US Embassy, more trouble awaits him.These revelations make him uncomfortable as it brings upon the suspicion that he might have a dark past. At one point, he realizes that he has to wither accept the possibility of him being a bad individual or wander confused about his true identity for the rest of his life. Matt Damon effectively conveys feelings of paranoia when his character Bourne is overwhelmed by this internal conflict. At this juncture, Bourne meets a woman named Marie played by Franka Potente. She is in a crunch need for money and he needs immediate transportation to flee away to this next destination France.Hence, they both agree to help out each other, as Marie strikes a deal with Bourne to transport him to Paris in exchange for $20,000 in cash. And, eventually Potente’s character turns out to be the hero’s love interest. In Paris, Bourne escapes all the assassination attempts planned against him by the CIA. Meanwhile, Marie goes flees away to safety on Bourne’s insistence. When Bourne visits the Treadstone Head Quarters, he gets back his memory about him being a CIA spy and assassin. He destroys the Treadstone operation and r eunites with Marie in a remote Greek island. CharactersClive Owen plays the role of an assassin sent by the CIA to kill Bourne since he failed in his mission of killing an African leader who threatens to expose the CIA secrets. Owen’s character, the professor, is a polished, cold, trench coat assassin who is in ruthless pursuit of Bourne. Owen nails the part to the tee with his emotionless expressions. Chris Cooper plays the role of the shady CIA officer Conklin who plans out top secret operations and makes ethically objectionable decisions behind closed doors. His character is also quite animated and annoyingly funny at times.Julia Stiles gives a decent performance with her robotic expressions, playing a minor part of an analyst named Nicolette. Critique Movie critic Craig Younkin calls Bourne Identity a â€Å"film about a character trying to rebuild† and emphasizes the importance of steady character building in this movie (Younkin 1). Mike Clark of USA Today feels th at Damon’s portrayal of Bourne is much more convincing than Richard Chamberlain’s performance in the 1988 TV version of the same movie(2). He also suggests that Demon’s being younger and his charming looks did not deter the credibility of the character.BBC’s Neil Smith also speaks highly of Damon’s portrayal of Bourne and compares his character to the likes of â€Å"classic spies like Harry Palmer and George Smiley† (2). However, he harshly criticizes the movie for not completely harnessing the acting prowess of Potente who showed great potential in the popular movie ‘Run Lola Run’. However, Charles Taylor of Salon. com considers Potente as the â€Å"movie's biggest human factor† (5). He perceives Potente’s character Marie as humane since she â€Å"watches frozen and scared† when Bourne is busy fighting with assassins, thereby providing â€Å"tenderness in the midst of violence† (Taylor 4).Rob Gonsalv es of eFilm Critic points out that Matt Damon’s natural appearance characterized by a â€Å"mixture of hard and soft features† makes him look â€Å"both defined and blank† (2). He perceives Bourne’s character as someone whose â€Å"mind forgot who he is but his body remembers very well† (2). Gonsalves feels this Damon’s attributes and acting work well for Bourne’s character that has no memory of his personal life, but still is proficient in certain survival skills such as speaking different languages and martial arts.He also compares this movie to the critically acclaimed thriller Memento, since the lead characters in both films suffer from the same condition while striving hard to uncover their identity and past. Margaret McGurk of the Cincinnati Enquirer is all praise for the director Liman, as she suggests that the movie’s â€Å"urgent pace helps play down some of the awkward plot holes† (8). She feels that that plot in most movies in this genre do tend to be lacking at times, since the primary focus is on the main character and only little time is left for explaining plotlines in detail.McGurk also appreciates the director for smartly muting the background score at the right time. Liman also receives praise from Top critic Colin Covert of the Star Tribune for his realistic style and paying â€Å"precise attention to detail†, especially in the car chase scene staged in Paris (6). Movie critic Jeremy Heilman of MovieMartyr. com points that the film’s weakness lies in the â€Å"lack of a strong villain† character and the absence of a concrete reason behind CIA’s desire to get rid of Bourne (3). He also feels that the films seems incomplete as a â€Å"number of plot threads remain untied† (Heilman 3).The movie’s main character is well developed and the storyline of the movie left enough room to make decent sequels, in the form of ‘The Bourne Supremacy ’ and ‘The Bourne Ultimatum’. Editing Technique The classical Hollywood editing approach is geared to toward achieving continuity by adopting editing techniques such as matching shots, cutting for reaction and cutting on action. However, the editors of the movie break out from convention, by capturing action on the fly and cutting for movement. This enables the audience to view action sequences exactly from Bourne’s shoes.The end results of this technique can be quite confusing and unsettling to the viewer, since there is always an element of uncertainty. Unlike usual action flicks, this movie’s editing does not ignore the consequences of the main character’s actions on other characters, thereby adding a touch of realism. In a way, this movie is not only entertaining but also makes the audience relate to the consequence of violence. Lighting and Cinematography The lighting and colors are quite dark to be reflective of the nature of the subjec t being handled in the movie.The movie follows quite a contemporary style of storytelling in this genre. The opening scene of the movie starts with a unique shot where we see Bourne’s body from underneath, through the water. The movie’s action sequences were shot and edited in way to provide a sense of realism, usually experienced in documentaries. The film is visually appealing as it showcases scenic locations in Zurich, Prague and Paris. The final scene set in the Greek island of Mykonos is testament to the movie’s refined visual treatment. ConclusionOne has to remember that this movie came out in 2002, just a few months after the tragic events of 9/11 when the CIA’s operational methods came under the microscope. Hence, it is natural for the audience to expect an element of relevance to real-world events. Applying political connotations to this movie would have only worsened the socio-political climate. According to A. O. Scott of the New York Times, th is movie is just a work of fiction and has nothing to do with current or past world happenings, thereby providing â€Å"something of a relief† (6).He further says Ludlum’s work is purely a fictional thriller, and does not intend on stimulating ethical dilemmas or posing questions over troubling geopolitical issues (Scott 6). Although the movie is not a typical action flick filled to the brim with action sequences and special effects, it does succeed in providing heart-pounding action to the viewer. Works Cited Page Covert, Colin. 24 March 2007. â€Å"Bourne Identity is a scorching thriller†. Star Tribune. (June 13 2002). 24 March 2007. Clark, Mike. â€Å"Bourne plays old-school spy game†.USA Today. (14 June 2002). 24 March 2007. Gonsalves, Rob. â€Å"The Bourne Identity†. eFilmCritic. 24 March 2007. Heilman, Jeremy. â€Å"The Bourne Identity (Doug Liman) 2002†. 24 March 2007. McGurk, Margaret. â€Å"Bourne to Thrill†. Cincinnati E nquirer. (14 June 2002). 24 March 2007. Scott, A. , O. â€Å"He Knows a Lot, Just Not His Name†.New York Times. (14 June 2002). 24 March 2007. Smith, Neil. â€Å"The Bourne Identity†. British Broadcasting Corporation. (September 2002). 24 March 2007. Taylor, Charles. â€Å"The Bourne Identity†. Salon. (14 June 2002). 24 March 2007. Younkin, Craig. â€Å"Reviews; The Bourne Identity†. MovieFreak. 24 March 2007.

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Personality Traits and Characteristics Essay

I had assumed that analyzing my own genius would be an easier task than analyzing the personality of a notable historical person. I made this premise based on the thought that I knew myself passing well. However, as I sit down down to bring through this analysis, I force a blank. I was unsure what to write round my own personality traits and characteristics. As a result of this strongy, I realised the Myers-Briggs part Indicator to achieve roughly insight into my own personality. I in any case interviewed family members to gather in fakeation about my personality that was clear and unbiased.The 2 approaches I cause elect to despatch this self-analysis ar Carl Jungs Attitude and Functions and Eriksons Psychosocial St hop ons of culture theories. Carl Jungs personality theories cover an exceedingly wide array of ideas regarding the human principal, or all mental processes. As a result of this I confirm chosen to focus on his theories of attitudes and functions. According to Jung, psychological types ar a result of motley combinations of dickens underlying attitudes and quadruple functions. These attitudes and functions argon responsible for our ways of perceiving the environment and orient experiences.The two basic attitudes of Jungs speculation are extraversion, in which the psyche is orientated outward to the objective field, and introversion, in which the psyche is oriented inward to the subjective world. The four functions include thinking, printing, sensing and intuition (Engler, 2009). by and by a considerable amount of research, I concluded that I was an introverted find outer. I tend to be shy and quiet, especially in social situations. As a result I maintain see difficulty parting friendships and relationships with most others. I am also a hypersensitive, emotional person.I view been concerned with personal values, attitudes and beliefs my stallion smell. When I superintendfully thought about how I come to produce decisions, judgments or conclusions, I realized that I do so based on my emotions. My family verify that I am an introverted feeler during their interviews. To expand on my knowledge and reasonableness of my personality type, I completed the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. This specific test sorts individuals into groups based on the following dichotomies Extraversion-Introversion (EI), Sensing-Intuition (SN), Thinking-Feeling (TF), and Judgment-Perception (JP) (Engler, 2009).The result of this test was the personality profile was ISFJ, which stands for introverted sensing feeling judging. M any(prenominal)(prenominal), if not all of my personality traits and characteristics twin perfectly with the ISFJ personality type. I urinate ever had a strong contend to be needed by others. I have frequently struggled with feelings that others did not deem my accurate, thorough work at denture and in the work place. My perfectionist tendencies have often caused problems for me and cause me to be overly minute of myself.I have often mat up taken advantage of by employers and friends because of my doglike and giving tendencies. I have everlastingly been the person who worked other peoples shifts or gave friends rides, even when I had other important things to do. Typically, I function high hat in small groups or private situations because I am empathetic and harmonic with others. I frequently overanalyze others behaviors and sometimes interpret them as rejection. I am also easily embarrassed. I dislike confrontation and I have extreme difficulty hiding or articulating distress (Heiss, 2007).Another article set in motion on the CG Jung organization website mentioned the affects of the R. A. S. , or shagcellated Activating System, has on an individuals personality traits and characteristics. The R. A. S. regulates our unchanging level of wakefulness, is linked to anxiety and makes it realistic for individuals to focus their aid. According to thi s article, people who are highly aroused take in to a greater extent than information per second than the fair person and subsequently take to moderate or limit the volume of stimulant around them. This is what makes a person an introvert.Introverts are overloaded with information more quickly, and ascribable to that introverts often have chronic anxiety, as well as a banish attitude towards animateness (Benziger, 2007). I myself have struggled with anxiety and negative attitudes, which led to depression. overdue to the fact that I am easily overwhelmed, I tend to sleep excessively. balance gives my brain a break from the overstimulation I experience in everyday carriage. Eriksons psychosocial awards of development are centered on the polarity that minorren encounter during certain phases of their life.This possibleness proposes eight epigenetic stages, each entailing its own life crisis in which an individual can chip one of two ways. Each psychosocial stage provides the individual with opportunities for certain basic equitys to develop (Engler, 2009). However, I am only way out to focus on the first sixer stages of Eriksons development because I have not been through the other two stages. The first developmental stage is go for versus mistrust, which occurs during infancy. This is when an infant check offs whether or not the world can be trusted.If dependable care is given and the infants needs are met, the basic virtue of foretaste leave develop (Engler, 2009). I was take in my infancy and given more than adequate care. I personally do not believe that my adoption caused me any issues until my later social classs. The second psychosocial stage is self-sufficiency versus shame and doubt, which arises during the second and third year of life. This stage deals with a toddlers ability to control their body and visible activities, as well as independence. The basic virtue that develops at this stage of life is volition.Eriksons third s tage is initiative versus guilt, which occurs at three to five years. At this point in time, children are focused on mastering new skills and tasks. If a child prevails, the basic virtue that will arise is purpose. The fourth psychosocial stage is patience versus inferiority, which occurs during ages six to xi. During this stage children must learn to master skills that they will need to be successful in society. If a child successfully does so, they will develop a good sense of competence (Engler, 2009).I do not recall experiencing anything incredibly difficult during these three psychosocial stages of development. I know that my parents had gotten a divorce at age three, which was moderately confusing for me, exclusively it did not really damage me psychologically in any way. I do remember being incredibly attached to my obtain during these stages however, and was typically upset or anxious if I was separated from her. When I was around the age of five, my family moved a short infinite to a house in Baldwinsville. The appointment was easy for me.At age seven, my mother got remarried, in my life long in the beginning he and my mother were married. He had always treated my sis and I as his own children. For that, I am super grateful. The hardest thing I remember experiencing was mournful from Baldwinsville to Liverpool, when I was about to turn eleven years old. I was very anxious, but adapted to my new surroundings with ease. I also did well in unsophisticated school academically and certain a close friendship with another(prenominal) misfire during this time period suggesting consistent with Eriksons ideas of mastery in middle childhood. egotism identity versus role confusion is the 5th stage of development, which occurs during ages twelve to eighteen, and involves establishing an identity and backwash ones self as a fecund member of society. During this stage an individual will develop the basic virtue of fidelity. This was a stage in wh ich I struggled. I was beginning to understand what adoption was and had a very difficult time perceptiveness why my birth mother would proficient give me away. I plunged into an identity crisis at this stage of my life and temporarily developed a negative identity, which was in note with my personal values and upbringing.I was also a victim of sexual encounter at this time, which diminished my self-confidence and sense of self worth even further. I do believe that my mothers occupation during my adolescent years multiform my life to a certain extent. Having a mother who is superintendent of the school territory I was attending made me feel alienated from my peers and I found it more difficult to make connections with others. The sixth and last psychosocial stage I will be discussing is intimacy versus isolation, takes place during the eighteenth to ordinal years of life.At this time upstart adults must be able to traverse the fear of ego loss and form a close affiliation with another individual. It is at this point that the basic virtue of love can potentially be established (Engler, 2009). I am presently in this psychosocial stage myself and am struggling. Recently, I escaped a very emotionally and physically abusive relationship, which damaged me psychologically. I also have experienced two significant losses in my life, which I have just begun recovering from.As said previously, the other two stages I have not experienced only and therefore will not be addressing in this paper. I chose Jung and Eriksons theories to complete a self-analysis because I felt that they best defined my own personality. I found the results of this analysis extremely accurate and insightful. However, certain aspects of my personality were left out. I believe that some of my traits and characteristics are transmitted while others were learned by watching those close to me over the years.My twin sister and I both have attention deficit disorders, which causes us to be extremely moody and impulsive. Both of us are very opinionated and stubborn individuals. Clearly, some behaviors are a result of genetics. I found this paper very useful in my own self-exploration. It helped me readily rate some of my neurotic tendencies and their possible causes. I plan on using what I have learned from this experience to make necessary changes so that I can lead a happier, healthier life with less neurotic symptoms.